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« پاسخ #15 : ۳۰ مهر ۱۳۸۹ - ۲۳:۵۹:۲۲ »
Sir Norman Foster Biography
original name in full Norman Robert Foster
 1935
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born June 1, 1935, Manchester, England) prominent British architect known for his sleek, modern buildings made of steel and glass.

Foster was trained at the University of Manchester (1956–61) in England and Yale University (1961–62) in New Haven, Connecticut. Beginning in 1963 he worked in partnership with Richard and Su Rogers and his wife, Wendy Foster, in a firm called Team 4. In 1967 he established his own firm called Foster Associates (later Foster + Partners). Foster's earliest works explored the idea of a technologically advanced “shed,” meaning a structure surrounded by a lightweight shell or envelope.

Foster's first buildings to receive international acclaim were the Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts (1974–78) in Norwich, England, a vast, airy corrugated metal shed, and the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation headquarters in Hong Kong (1979–86), a futuristic steel-and-glass office building with a stepped profile of three towers. In these commissions, he established himself as one of the world's leaders in high-tech design: for both buildings he had ingeniously moved elements such as elevators to the exterior of the building, where they could be easily serviced, and thus created open plans in the centre of the spaces. Balancing out this high-tech character, many of Foster's buildings, including his Hong Kong office and the Commerzbank (1991–97) in Frankfurt, utilized green spaces, or mini-atria, and were designed to allow a maximum amount of natural light into the offices. In this way, Foster created a more fluid relationship between inside and outside spaces and strove to impart a sense of humanity into an otherwise futuristic office environment.

Foster, a veteran of the Royal Air Force (1953–55) and an avid pilot, also applied his preference for open plans and natural lighting to airports such as Stansted (1981–91) outside London and Chek Lap Kok (1992–98) in Hong Kong and to the expressively simple American Air Museum (1987–97) at Duxford (England) airfield. At the turn of the 21st century, Foster extended his ideas to world landmarks. He rebuilt the Reichstag (1992–99) in Berlin after the reunification of Germany, adding a new steel-and-glass dome that surrounds a spiral observation platform, and he encased the court of the British Museum (1994–2000) in London under a steel-and-glass roof, creating an enclosed urban square within this famous museum building. His noteworthy buildings of the 21st century include the courtyard enclosure for the Smithsonian Institution's Patent Office Building in Washington, D.C. (2004–07), and Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport (2003–08)

The recipient of numerous awards for his work—including the Pritzker Prize (1999), the Japan Art Association's Praemium Imperiale prize for architecture (2002), and the Aga Khan Award (2007) for his design of the Petronas University of Technology in Malaysia—Foster was knighted in 1990 and granted a life peerage in 1999

[spoiler]Copyright © 1994-2009 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.[/spoiler]

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Cyrus II Biography(کورش کبیر)
« پاسخ #16 : ۹ آبان ۱۳۸۹ - ۱۲:۱۳:۵۷ »
Cyrus II Biography
known as Cyrus the Great
 529 – 580

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born 585, Media or Persis—died 529, Asia) Conqueror who founded the Achaemenian Empire ( Achaemenian dynasty). The grandson of Cyrus I (fl. late 7th century ), he came to power by overthrowing his maternal grandfather, the king of the Medes. The empire he developed was thenceforth centered on Persia and included Media, Ionia, Lydia, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. Cyrus conquered by diplomacy as well as by force. The subject of a rich legend in Persia and Greece (recorded by Xenophon and others), he was called the father of his people. He appears in the Bible as the liberator of the Jews held captive in Babylon. He died battling nomads in Central Asia. His legacy is the founding not only of an empire but of a culture and civilization that continued to expand after his death and lasted for two centuries. He exerted a strong influence on the Greeks and Alexander the Great. Awarded heroic qualities in legend, he has long been revered by Persians almost as a religious figure. In 1971 Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of his founding of the monarchy

[spoiler]Copyright © 1994-2010 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. For more information visit Britannica.com[/spoiler]

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MOdulator-DEModulator
« پاسخ #17 : ۲۹ آذر ۱۳۸۹ - ۱۷:۴۷:۴۶ »
MOdulator-DEModulator
MOdulator-DEModulator Until the late 1990s, the term stood for a device that allowed a computer or terminal to transmit data over a standard dial-up telephone line. Since the advent of high-speed cable and DSL connections, modem may refer to devices for low-speed dial-up or high-speed broadband

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A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms.
Fortunately, there is one standard interface for connecting external modems to computers called RS-232. Consequently, any external modem can be attached to any computer that has an RS-232 port, which almost all personal computers have. There are also modems that come as an expansion board that you can insert into a vacant expansion slot. These are sometimes called onboard or internal modems.

While the modem interfaces are standardized, a number of different protocols for formatting data to be transmitted over telephone lines exist. Some, like CCITT V.34, are official standards, while others have been developed by private companies. Most modems have built-in support for the more common protocols -- at slow data transmission speeds at least, most modems can communicate with each other. At high transmission speeds, however, the protocols are less standardized.

Aside from the transmission protocols that they support, the following characteristics distinguish one modem from another:

bps : How fast the modem can transmit and receive data. At slow rates, modems are measured in terms of baud rates. The slowest rate is 300 baud (about 25 cps). At higher speeds, modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps). The fastest modems run at 57,600 bps, although they can achieve even higher data transfer rates by compressing the data. Obviously, the faster the transmission rate, the faster you can send and receive data. Note, however, that you cannot receive data any faster than it is being sent. If, for example, the device sending data to your computer is sending it at 2,400 bps, you must receive it at 2,400 bps. It does not always pay, therefore, to have a very fast modem. In addition, some telephone lines are unable to transmit data reliably at very high rates.

voice/data: Many modems support a switch to change between voice and data modes. In data mode, the modem acts like a regular modem. In voice mode, the modem acts like a regular telephone. Modems that support a voice/data switch have a built-in loudspeaker and microphone for voice communication.
auto-answer : An auto-answer modem enables your computer to receive calls in your absence. This is only necessary if you are offering some type of computer service that people can call in to use.
data compression : Some modems perform data compression, which enables them to send data at faster rates. However, the modem at the receiving end must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique.

flash memory : Some modems come with flash memory rather than conventional ROM, which means that the communications protocols can be easily updated if necessary.
Fax capability: Most modern modems are fax modems, which means that they can send and receive faxes.
To get the most out of a modem, you should have a communications software package, a program that simplifies the task of transferring data


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